Thursday, May 14, 2020

Philippine Annexation Dbq A Primary Cause Of World War I...

Sariah Smith McMaster Gold 3 17 November 2016 Philippine Annexation DBQ Scholars typically cite imperialism as a primary cause of World War I, and though controversial, America was no stranger to the practice. In 1898, the United States won the Spanish American War, resulting in the Paris Treaty. America gained several formerly Spanish colonies from their victory, and through the Treaty of Paris, they annexed the Philippines. Filipino insurgents, who had fought for the Philippines independence, rebelled against the annexation. This led to the Philippine-American War. However, not all Americans supported the annexation. In fact, the Paris Treaty passed by only one vote, and anti-imperialists such as Mark Twain contended with pro-imperialists like Theodore Roosevelt. Despite the debate, the United States should not have annexed the Philippines, because the decision was unnecessary, hypocritical, and tyrannical. America s annexation of the Philippines was not a necessary decision. Supporters of the annexation believed it would benefit America economically. However, Democratic presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan stated in a speech, It is not necessary to own people in order to trade with them (Document D). Trade with the Philippines could have been accomplished without occupying them. In addition, pro-imperialists exhibited a patronizing attitude toward the Filipinos; for instance, Albert J. Beveridge described the Philippines as ours to save (Document B). Many

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Theory Of Consciousness And Its Effects On Society

When I think of consciousness, I seemed to compare this to the state of being aware of surroundings. Somehow, there are various theories that will argue that we can still be in the state of consciousness even when we are sleep as well as someone in a coma. Nonetheless, the term consciousness can be said to be inconclusive or even referred to an enigma. In fact, it is so mysterious that numerous philosophers and other experts such as Plato, Sigmund Freud and so many others to mention have explored and attempted to validate their theories on consciousness. Due to its elusiveness, philosophers and other truth-seekers attempt to surmise answers by pursuing diverse facts and evidences that can lead to their theories (Manson, 2011). On the other†¦show more content†¦There are various definitions of consciousness which can be ambiguous and to have a precise explanation at this time can still be considered premature. We actually do not have an exact rationalization of how consciousn ess emerges or the mechanism of consciousness process. However, there are different theories of how consciousness arises within the past years that have been advocated. There is a long repertoire of proposed theories based on metaphysical and ontological which is an assumption constructed on the state of subsistence with disparities can be perplexing. Nonetheless, several of the stipulated suppositions of such paradigms have direct correlations with each other, which can be ascertained to be not mutually exclusive. Neuroscience is concerned with the nervous system as it relates to the structure, how it arises and its functionality. Neuroscientists concentrate on the human brain and how it influences human behavior and cognitive functions. Therefore, for the neuroscientists’ point of view, the fundamental theories of consciousness are based on the higher order attribute, global workspace assessment and the biological aspect of the human mind (Block, 2009). Based on the biolog ical theory of consciousness, this phenomenon is a derivative of a combination of evolution and biological progress. This theory plainly disregards the theories of metaphysics but rather can be rationalized throughShow MoreRelatedThe Theory Of Consciousness And The Scientific Processes862 Words   |  4 Pages even evolving. This occurs across the entire spectrum of most all environments with dynamics natures; within society, within religion, and within science. More specifically, both the study and observation of consciousness and the scientific processes allocated towards those ends have changed profoundly over time. 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The formal rules are documented and go handRead MoreAdorno Horkheimers Traditional And Critical Theory Of Society1199 Words   |  5 PagesCritical Theory, Adorno Horkheimer introduced the term critical theory in contrast to the traditional theory. ‘Critical theory’ or critical theory of society is defined as a social theory which aims to both critique and changes the society by providing a normative and descriptive basis for the emancipation of the society. In fact, an emancipation of the oppressed (similar to the Marxian emancipation of the proletariat from the shackles of bourgeois)  is the core concept of the critical theory. HorkheimerRead MoreThree Theoretical Approaches to Sociology1326 Words   |  6 Pages This theoretical approach views society as a system of inter-dependent social functions each working to maintain equilibrium and stability within the whole. The social function of marriage, for instance, might be seen to derive from a religious structure. The values, norms, and behaviors surrounding marriage (such as age limits, ‘showers’, and marriage licenses), and the ways in which these aspects of the function benefit the participants, is the ‘society’ which rises from the initial structureRead MoreThe Class Conflict Theory Proposed By Karl Marx1571 Words   |  7 PagesThe Class Conflict Theory proposed by Karl Marx explains that society changes due to the need for human beings to have a higher level of social class. This is essentially a framework developed by Marx that he aimed to use to explain the mode of social stratification happening during his time, its root causes, and its main effects. Marx had a unique view on the nature of different socia l classes. He believed that there are only two social classes where people can belong (Marx McLellan, Karl Marx

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Defining Liquid Alternative Investments

Question: Discuss the types of investments, accounting for investments, economic entity concept and accounting standard. Answer: Introduction As far as accounting is concerned, investment may be defined as an asset purchased with the assumption that it will generate income in the future. It generally involves a lump sum amount. An asset is supposed to give long term gains. It is not meant for short term use. For example: A machinery to the worth of Rs. 1 million has been purchased by XYZ Ltd. The machinery is supposed to manufacture finished goods from processed items and is meant to be used in the future for a very long period of time (Zaremba, 2015). A car purchased for official purposes is also an investment. Investment can also be done in stocks and shares in the companies with the hope that the price will rise in future. Also, equity shares yield dividends when profits are earned by the companies. Investing and speculating should not be confused. Investing leads to creation of wealth, speculating does not do so. They are highly liquid and posted on the asset side of balance sheet as current assets. There are certain investments which are acquired for the purpose of holding them (Calandro, 2005). The accounting depends on the intent of investment. Types of Investments The investments can be classified by the following types: Held to maturity A bond may be defined as a promise to pay. A company purchases bonds sometimes. The bond is a promise to pay. The investment done with the objective of holding it to maturity is known as held to maturity investments. The amortized cost approach is used in this case. Trading Security: An investment is classified as trading security if the investor wants to sell it short term for a profit. Cost is taken as the basis of recording initially. At the end of the period, the investment is evaluated to its fair value. Operating income are any holding gains or losses (unrealized). Available for sale: The investments which are neither held to maturity or trading security are known as available for sale. It is initially recorded at cost. At the end of accounting period, the recorded investment is adjusted to its fair value. Accounting for Investments Dividends are declared annually in the annual general meeting of a company. They are treated as in come in the final accounts. The entry will be as follows: Cash To Dividend Income On the balance sheet, the amount securities that is available for sale is shown as assets in the balance sheet. When an individual wishes to borrow money, he approaches a bank or any other financial institution. However, a corporate house borrows large amounts and it often exceeds the lending capacity of the bank (Charpin and Lacaze, 2006). Therefore, a large borrower may issue bonds where the amount is broken up into many small units. Each bond has a face value and the number of bonds multiplied by the face value denotes the loan able amount. The issue price of the bond will depend on the issuers credit worthiness, the time to maturity and the market conditions. Bonds may be issued at a premium or even at a discount. Bonds issued at a premium compels the investor to pay more than face value (Branch and Xu, 2014). Similarly, bonds issued at a discount enable the investor to pay less than face value per bond. The journal entry will be as follows: Investment (in bonds) To Cash The method applied to track amortized cost is known as straight line method. A superior approach known as effective interest method is also applied sometimes. The investor makes the final entry on repayment of principal. Cash To Investment (in bonds) Enough ownership may be acquired by the owner in another company and can have significant influence in the matters of decision making in the company. Generally, this happens when the share is more than 20%. Economic Entity concept A company which is controlled may continue to maintain its own legal entity. Suppose, A Ltd. has acquired shares in B Ltd. B will be part of the larger economic base (Pzier and White, 2008). Accounting rules require that parent companies bring to inclusion all the assets, liabilities and operating results of the subsidiaries in the balance sheet. There is one more concept of goodwill. Goodwill arises when one company acquires another. Whenever one company is in the process of buying another company and pays more than the net assets, the excess is termed as goodwill (Black, 2015). Another important concept occurs whether there is a realization of gain or loss. Gain or loss only occurs when the investment is sold. Similarly, change in the fair value gives unrealized gain or loss. In a held security, if there is a permanent loss, the entire investment is written off and is treated as realized loss (Mukherjee 2004). This occurs when the company goes bankrupt. Immediate taxation is not ap plied to any unrealized gain or loss. When the loss or gain is realized by the sale of security, then only it is subject to taxation. So, the basis of calculation of tax of securities and the amount to be carried in the accounting records of the investor may have a temporary difference (Calandro 2005). Accounting Standard 13 This particular standard deals with accounting for investments. There is no physical existence of some investments and are represented by certificates. The classification of investments is done with current investments and long term investments. Current investments resemble current assets. If issue of shares is used to acquire an investment, the cost is the issued securities fair value. The fair value and the par value may not be equal. The given up fair value of assets determines the acquisition cost in case an investment is by exchange (Bodie, Kane and Marcus 2005). In some circumstances, income such as interest, dividends and rentals do not form part of income. If there is accrual of unpaid interest before the acquisition of an interest bearing investment, the subsequent receipt of interest happens between pre acquisition and post acquisition periods. When equity dividends are declared from profits of pre acquisition, a treatment which is similar applies. In case of rights shares, the carrying amount of the original holding adds the cost of the shares. If there is market sale of rights without subscribing, the sale proceeds are taken to the profit and loss statement (Mukherjee 2004). Where there is cum right basis acquiring and the investments market value immediately after becoming ex-right is lower than the acquired cost , it is appropriate to apply the sales of rights to reduce the carrying amount of such investments to market value. Lower of cost or market value is the amount which is to be carried forward for current investments. Where there is an existence of an active market, the market value best provides fair value evidence. It is not appropriate to consider valuation of current investments on global basis. When there is a consideration of related current investments, there may be carriage of investments at lower of cost or market value. The profit and loss statement includes any fair value reduction and any reversals. Cost is the basis in which long term investments are usually carried. A fall in the long term investment, value forces the carrying amount to recognize the decline. The lower of cost and fair value is taken as the basis for transfer when there is a reclassification of investments from current to long term. Reference List Black, Keith. 2015. 'Defining Liquid Alternative Investments'.The Journal Of Alternative Investments17 (3): 6-25. doi:10.3905/jai.2014.17.3.006. Bodie, Zvi, Alex Kane, and Alan J Marcus. 2005.Investments. Boston, Mass.: McGraw-Hill Irwin. Branch, Ben, and Min Xu. 2014. 'Hedge Fund Investments In Bankruptcy'.The Journal Of Alternative Investments, 140311050935003. doi:10.3905/jai.2014.2014.1.033. Calandro, Joseph. 2005. 'Super Cats As Alternative Investments'.The Journal Of Alternative Investments7 (4): 42-49. doi:10.3905/jai.2005.491500. Calandro, Joseph. 2005. 'Super Cats As Alternative Investments'.The Journal Of Alternative Investments7 (4): 42-49. doi:10.3905/jai.2005.491500. Charpin, Franoise, and Dominique Lacaze. 2006. 'Efficient Portfolios For Alternative Investments'.The Journal Of Alternative Investments8 (4): 19-25. doi:10.3905/jai.2006.627847. Mukherjee, Barsendu. 2004. 'Current Research In Alternative Investments And Econometric Methods'.The Journal Of Alternative Investments6 (4): 95-97. doi:10.3905/jai.2004.391068. Mukherjee, Barsendu. 2004. 'Current Research In Alternative Investments And Econometric Methods'.The Journal Of Alternative Investments6 (4): 95-97. doi:10.3905/jai.2004.391068. Pzier, Jacques, and Anthony White. 2008. 'The Relative Merits Of Alternative Investments In Passive Portfolios'.The Journal Of Alternative Investments10 (4): 37-49. doi:10.3905/jai.2008.705531. Zaremba, Adam. 2015. 'Is Financialization Killing Commodity Investments?'.The Journal Of Alternative Investments, 150609072048007. doi:10.3905/jai.2015.2015.1.042.

Thursday, April 9, 2020

A Heros Journey The Hunger Games Essay Example

A Heros Journey The Hunger Games Essay The Hunger Games tells of an ordinary teenage girl who lives in District 12, who struggles to live within the fences. Katniss’ Call to Adventure is when her younger sister Prim is called to be a tribute and participate in the seventy-fourth annual Hunger Games. Katniss does not Refuse her Call to Adventure because she immediately volunteers to take the place of Prim. Katniss does not want her sister to be in danger so she does everything in her willpower to keep her from harm, even if that includes sacrificing herself. A Threshold Guardian would be Prim because when she was chosen Katniss volunteered to take her place, but Prim did not want her to go. Katniss doesn’t necessarily have a Mentor, instead, she uses her own independence to strengthen her. On the contrary, she does have the help of her best friend Gale to encourage her, while also receiving help from the â€Å"mentor† that has been given to Katniss and Peeta Haymitch, who has already survived a hunger games. The Talisman that Katniss has is the Mockingjay pin given to her by Madge, which is a small sign of rebellion. One of Katniss’ Companions is Peeta. She is accompanied by Peeta to compete in the Hunger Games with her. He becomes a significant character throughout the series and through the Games. We will write a custom essay sample on A Heros Journey The Hunger Games specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on A Heros Journey The Hunger Games specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on A Heros Journey The Hunger Games specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Katniss Crosses the Threshold when she boards the train with Peeta, Effie and Haymitch to go to the Capitol. When they get to the Capitol everyone is dressed weird with weird wigs on, and their faces painted. At the capitol she meets their stylist, Cinna, who gives her the nickname â€Å"the girl that was on fire†. When they go to the main plaza in the city where they will go in front of an audience, Cinna lights them, and tells them to hold hands. When they get to the training center, Katniss is in awe of how luxurious her room is. Katniss’ Road of Trials begins and she is raised into the arena and the 74th annual Hunger Games begin. At the cornucopia Katniss gets an o

Monday, March 9, 2020

The Role of the Government

The Role of the Government Free Online Research Papers Many believe that our government has absolutely no ethics in decision making at all. With so many government issues that are going on right now, it is clear that there is a lack of ethics being applied in the decision making. One of the reasons why many people feel that our government has no ethics is due to the lack of understanding of it. The true meaning of ethics is the study of right and wrong. In other words, â€Å"ethics is a descriptive discipline, involving the collection and interpretation of data on what people from various cultures believe, without any consideration for the appropriateness or reasonableness of those beliefs† (Ruggiero, 2008, p. 5). The laws and ethics work together to set forth guidelines by which the American people shall adhere to. Many people of society believe that there is not a need for ethics because of the law system that is in place. They believe that the law system fully covers and protect the rights of the people. People need to understand that our laws are â€Å"not possible without ethics† (Ruggiero, 2008, p. 4). Before the law can be enacted a decision of whether an act was right or wrong needs to be made and this is where ethics comes along. All situations need to be observed so that a conclusion can be made to form a better moral perspective before a reasonable judgment can be made. Ethical decisions must be made on a daily basis in all areas to include: â€Å"Education, Media and the Arts, Sex, Government, Law, Business, Medicine, Science, and War† (Ruggiero, 2008, p. 149). Governmental officials can play an important role in nurturing ethical conduct in American democracy. Society should have trust and confidence in the governments’ ability to protect the public interest. They are responsible for implementing and enforcing high ethical standards. The Office of Government Ethics (OGE) was established by the Ethics in Government Act of 1978. It later became its’ own agency as part of the Office of Government Ethics Reauthorization Act of 1988, on 1 October 1989. This agency exercises â€Å"leadership in the executive branch to prevent conflicts of interest on the part of Government employees and to resolve those conflicts of interest that do occur.† Our laws, regulations, and ethical principles are implemented and enforced by the government. Appointed leaders must ensure that their arguments include a quality of evidence to support the decisions that are being made. The American people expect all leaders and officials to be competent and abide by the same standards that are set for them. All undesirable behaviors or actions are to be regulated by the provisions of the ethics codes. Unbecoming actions or violations will be dealt with in accordance with the laws, policies, and regulations that are in place. â€Å"Effective codes are directed at prevention, providing guidelines for ethical behavior and eliminating opportunities for unethical practices† (1998, March, p. 5). As part of ensuring the resolution of such issues is enforced, the government officials are expected to set a higher standard by which they live. The Executive Order 12674 (of April 12, 1989) clearly defines the objective of the Principles of Ethical Conduct by which all government officials are ordered to adhere to. Section 101, of the Executive Order 12674 (of April 12, 1989), says that the government officials are â€Å"to ensure that every citizen can have complete confidence in the integrity of the Federal Government† (1989, April, p. 1). The people of America cannot have such confidence unless their government officials are also adhering to the standards of conduct set forth for their office. The integrity, honesty, and loyalty that the government portrays will have a positive effect on the American people who are looking to them for guidance and structure. The confidence of the American people can only be enhanced by the strength, wisdom, and respect of the leaders which are appointed above them. According to a 1997 Peter Hart/Robert Teeter poll taken for the Council for Excellence In Government, â€Å"citizens have more confidence in their local governments than in the state or federal governments† (see chart above) (1998, March, p. 14). These findings may be due to the lack of ethical standards that some leaders may possess. The government is responsible for providing leaders who are competent and portray the principles by which they are obligated to fulfill. Leaders must strive to avoid any action that would create the appearance that they are violating the law or ethical standards. In doing this they will increase the level of confidence and respect that the American people currently have towards the governments and their ability to handle any ethical issues that may be at hand in the future. Individuals are encouraged to report any suspected cases of illegal, unethical, or immoral misconduct that may be occurring. â€Å"Internal disclosure policies/procedures (IDPP’’s) have been recommended as on e way to encourage such communication† (Barnette, T., Cochran, D., Taylor, G., 1993, p.1). Although these policies/procedures may be in place, employees can often deal with possible repercussions such as â€Å"blacklisting, transfer, and harassment† (Bowman, J., Elliston, F., 1998, p. 3). Such techniques can result in the possible dismissal of the individual reporting possible violations. Reprisals are not unheard of during times when accusations are being made. Some common methods used are ostracism, demotion, and termination of employment. Other consequences that may be suffered may include divorce, stress, hardship, and even taking ones’ own life. People who try to do the right thing and are faced with this type of treatment often do not know how to deal with the possible effects and lose their dignity. Efforts to protect conscientious employees against reprisals need to be emphasized. Those with knowledge of misconduct need to provide specific facts and details concerning the incident. Appropriate actions, consistent with law and policy, can then be determined for the suspected misconduct. They must take into careful consideration whether or not the conduct is of threat to the public and society. Many employees are not aware of the policies and laws that have been adopted to protect them from any retaliation for the employer. The Whistleblower Protection Act protects employees who call attention to violations, help with enforcement proceedings, or refuse to obey unlawful directions. This act is defined as: â€Å"The disclosure by organization members (former or current) of illegal, immoral or illegitimate practices under the control of their employers, to persons or organizations that may be able to effect action† or â€Å"A dissenting act of public accusation against an organization, which necessities being disloyal to that organization† (Bather, A. Kelly, M., 2005, p. 4). These concerns can be handled either internally or externally. Most can be handled internally if they have good policies in place. If the internal system is lacking the power to resolve the reported incident, they can seek to take the report to an external agency for further investigation. The importance of consequences and penalties for violators of laws, policies, and regulations is imperative. People tend to do things and behave in ways that are unpredictable or dangerous. To come to a fair judgment â€Å"all significant consequences must be identified-the indirect as well as the direct, the subtle as well as the obvious, the unintended as well as the intended, the delayed as well as the immediate, the emotional and intellectual as well as the physical† (Ruggiero, 2008, p. 119-120). Making quick judgments or decisions without giving a proper analysis could cause you to come to a conclusion that is not just. Without the enactment of our laws, policies, and regulations the public would become corrupt. Society, as we know it, would become more interested in what is in the best interest of the individual and not the greater good of the people as a whole. The crime rate would increase dramatically due to the fact that they would not be persecuted for their wrong doings. In order for our public officials to be competent in their position and able to determine how to resolve complex situations, they must first be educated and properly trained. Training is made available on the Internet through an interactive ethics training game entitled Quandaries. â€Å"California law requires that Members of the Legislature, legislative employees and registered lobbyists take an ethics training course once every two years† (1998, March). It is imperative that our public officials have an understanding of and know the laws that coincide with the important decisions they have to make. Ethics Education Offered by California Cities and Counties | Cities Offering Ethics Classes | Counties Offering Ethics Classes | For elected officials – 4 | For elected officials – 3 | For city staff – 6 | For city staff – 3 | Cities with Ethics Handbooks – 6 | Counties with Ethics Handbooks – 1| Source: CRB Survey Sample, 1996-97 | Although our public officials are required such training, there are still few jurisdictions who do not offer such an opportunity to their employees or officials. â€Å"Lack of training leaves agency officials at risk of unintentionally violating ethics standards, thereby undermining the agency’s substantive work and exposing officials to bad publicity, investigation and possible prosecution† (1998, March). Making mistakes like this due to the lack of training can be frustrating to the official and they can be faced with moral dilemmas. Moral dilemmas are â€Å"any predicament that arises from the impossibility of honoring all the moral values that deserve honoring† (Ruggiero, 2008, p. 124-125). Without the proper education of ethics or training that is related, a person cannot fully comprehend the situation at hand. People would then make decisions based on their own personal or religious beliefs, instead of the way that is more acceptable. Our leaders need to know the importance of any obligation, value, or consequence that should be considered when determining the dilemma they care dealing with. Our leaders are faced with many dilemmas which raise the issue of ethical standards. They are entrusted to make difficult decisions with regard to the greater good of the people. Officials must consider behavior in various situations to determine the actual intent was to act ethically or unethically. When they are evaluating these dilemmas, they should â€Å"consider first whether it can be avoided altogether; in other words, whether it is a true dilemma or only an apparent one† (Ruggiero, 2008, p. 125). The decision-making process of the individuals faced with choices involving ethical issues is complex. The decisions are based on whether one alternative is of the greater good than the other or the lesser of evil. Each situation should be dealt with fairness and justice. When addressing any issue that may or may not be an ethical situation you must use a tactful approach to give a proper analysis and make an appropriate decision. First, a person needs to study all information and details related to the issue. If there are some details that are unavailable you must consider what may have been or what the possibility may or may have not been. Secondly, you must decide what information may be relevant to the issue at hand. Considering any obligations that may be tied to the criteria can give you information that may have been overlooked. Any ideals related to the issue can help you to have a better understanding of the situation and how to handle it better. All consequences must be considered when giving a through analysis of the issue. Third, you have to come up with a possible course of action. Look at the alternatives that may have been there or alternative responses that could have been enacted in the situation. Keep an open mind to all situations s o that you are not making a biased decision. Last but not least, you must decide whether or not one action is more ethical than the other. You must look at all the information, evidence, and other criteria related to the situation and decide which alternative is ethically preferable. â€Å"If two actions produce good or two produce harm, choose the one that produces the greater good or the lesser harm† (Ruggiero, 2008, p. 151). If you follow these steps every time you are faced with a dilemma you can feel assured that you have made a sound judgment and it is justifiable. Although many of the American people believe that the government has no ethics in decision-making, they do not see the bigger picture. Our government officials are ultimately responsible for the fair and impartial resolutions to the dilemmas they are faced with on a daily basis. The government offers ethics education and training to give employees an understanding of what may or may not be an ethical act or behavior. This will enable those individuals with a more clear view of the situations they may be faced with so that they can have sound judgment when making their decisions. The laws and ethics work together to set forth guidelines by which the American people shall adhere to. Without them, society as we know it could become chaotic and without moral values. We must â€Å"keep speculating, keep examining, keep questioning† (Ruggiero, 2008, p. 147) in order to make progress in our understanding of ethics. References Barnett, T., Cochran, D. Taylor, G. (1993, February). The Internal Disclosure Policies of Private-Sector Employers: An Initial Look at Their Relationship to Employee Whistleblowing. Journal of Business Ethics, 12 (2). Retrieved April 25, 2010, from Bather, A. Kelly, M. (2005). Whistleblowing: The advantages of self-regulation. (Department of Accounting Working Paper Series, Number 82). Hamilton, New Zealand: University of Waikato. Bowman, J. Elliston, F. (Eds.) (1998). Ethics, Government, and Public Policy: A Reference Guide. New York: Greenwood Press. California Research Bureau, California State Library. (1998, March). Local Government Ethics Ordinances in California. Retrieved April, 2010, from Ruggiero, V. (2008). Thinking critically about ethical issues. (7th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. United States Office of Government Ethics ( United States Office of Government Ethics. (1989, April) Executive Order 12674. Retrieved April 24, 2010, from Research Papers on The Role of the GovernmentMoral and Ethical Issues in Hiring New EmployeesArguments for Physician-Assisted Suicide (PAS)PETSTEL analysis of IndiaNever Been Kicked Out of a Place This NiceBringing Democracy to AfricaQuebec and CanadaCapital Punishment19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoRelationship between Media Coverage and Social and

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Carl Friedrich Gauss Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Carl Friedrich Gauss - Essay Example Gauss represented a clear expression of a great mathematician of a small town called Gottingen. He is known in history for his remarkable geometrical discoveries. He is known for his discoveries in method of least squares, quadratic reciprocity, and non-Euclidean geometry. One of his greater works is also seen in astronomy. I totally agree with the works of Gauss on construction of polygons, least squares method, the fundamental theorem of algebra or the non-Euclidean's - differential geometry. Though he never published these discoveries anywhere but his work is highly remarkable. Gauss started with these discoveries at a very early age. He proved the construction of regular 17 sided polygons called heptadecagon. He proved that this can be constructed simply with the help of a ruler and a compass and thinks this is one of his greatest achievements in the history of geometry. Because as opposed to Kepler, Gauss proved that not only a triangle, square, pentagon, hexagon are constructible but then he proved it right that 17 sided figures can also be constructed with the equal lengths. He further added that 17 gon can be constructed using four quadratic equations (Swetz, 1994). One more important discovery of Gauss is the theory of least squares and normal distribution. He proved that every curve led to the least squares. He believed that the problems can be simplified by solving the errors evenly distributed. As a result, this gave the accurate estimates by solving the errors incurred in the equation. The construction was possible with trigonometric functions along with arithmetic and square roots. Gaussian distribution curve is a bell shaped curve used for normal distribution. In the Gaussian distribution, all the values combined give the value as 1. Gauss gave the fundamental theorem of algebra where he proved that any algebraic equation to the degree n, where n is a positive integer will have n number of roots. I totally agree with Gauss in his work on Disquisitiones Arithmeticae where he investigated the number theory within mathematics. Also, he made it possible to draw a circle into equal arch's just with the help of a ruler and a compass. In the number theory, he came up with an idea of congruence in numbers with the help of which infinite series of whole numbers can be broken into smaller chunks of numbers. This can e explained by taking an example: 700 - 400 = 300 right. Here the remainder is 300. This remainder can further be divided into smaller chunks of numbers like 100, 50, and 30 and so on. Here 700 and 400 are congruent to each other by modulo 100. This concept was very much popular among the digital watches. The gauss theory of numbers has its relevance even today and many great mathematicians of today hold this o pinion. It plays a crucial role in the Internet world today through security technologies (Struik 1987). In is theory of geometry, he never agreed to Euclidean's indeed known for his non-Euclidean geometry. He found that parallel postulate fails in the Euclid's geometrical theory that through a point which is not on the line, in this case either there is none or more than one parallel line. The basic difference between the Euclid and Non Euclid's theory on geometry was the nature of parallel lines. Non Euclid theory discovered the geometry of space. The non Euclidean's geometry studied Elliptic geometry

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

Cultural Diversity and Language Education Assignment

Cultural Diversity and Language Education - Assignment Example Spnish cme very esily to me becuse of ll the French I hd tken nd my strong desire to lern the lnguge. fter college, I trveled for yer in South meric, where I both reinforced my Spnish nd lso picked up Portuguese while visiting Brzil. When I returned from South meric I ws unsure wht I wnted to do, so I enrolled in bilingul techer eduction progrm sponsored by Title VII. yer of student teching nd bilingul methods courses certified me s bilingul techer. I becme bilingul techer out of my love for Spnish. I see the process of becoming bilingul s lifelong journey, one in which I m still involved. When I strted teching, I hd no ide tht bilingul teching ws so controversil, stigmtized, nd complex. For 6 yers, I struggled s Spnish-English bilingul elementry school techer in Oklnd, Cliforni. Prt of this struggle ws cused by lck of support from my principl nd collegues, who did not understnd the purposes of wht is needed to develop bilingulism. During tht time, I obtined mster's degree in curriculum nd bilingul eduction. t the clssroom level, despite my techer trining nd mster's degree, I still fced dily dilemms such s, "Wht should I do with 30 kids whose lnguge dominnce vries from Spnish to English nd ll the shdes in between" "Wht kind of curriculum should I use for Omr, who hs just come from Mexico to my fourth-grde clss nd doesn't know how to hold pencil becuse he hs never gone to school before" "How do I work with Guillermo, who is very bright, fully bilingul, finishes his work in 2 minutes, nd strts to red the encyclopedi becuse he's bored" "How do I tech my clss with inferior nd inpproprite Spnish mterils nd books" Somehow, I lerned to survive by creting my own mterils nd developing meningful lerning opportunities for students; by individulizing instruction; by hving students help one nother; nd by tking students out into the community nd bringing the community into the clss through trips, projects, nd guests. The effort to do this in n unsupportive environment ws t gret psychic expense tht cu sed me to burn out. I found myself becoming imptient with the children. I needed chnge. When the chnce cme to move to New York to pursue doctorte in curriculum nd bilingul eduction t Techers College Columbi University, I looked t it s n opportunity to begin to find nswers to these teching questions. From my teaching experience, I can say that second lnguge cquisition cn begin t ny ge nd hence t different levels of brin mturity nd cognitive development. It cn tke plce predominntly in forml lerning or during informl dy-to-dy communiction (depending on socil fctors, the level of cognitive development, nd previous eduction). The ge fctor is closely relted to the method of lnguge lerning due to the difference in the cognitive orgniztion of children's nd dults' lnguge cquisition. In orgnized lerning, for exmple, different types of prctice mteril nd lerning ids exploit different input nd processing modlities (visul, uditory, nd motor). First lnguge cquisition goes "hnd in hnd" with the development of cognitive bilities nd the construction